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Fungal disease and temperature alter skin microbiome structure in an experimental salamander system

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dc.contributor.author Muletz-Wolz, Carly en
dc.contributor.author Fleischer, Robert C. en
dc.contributor.author Lips, Karen R. en
dc.date.accessioned 2019-06-08T02:01:43Z
dc.date.available 2019-06-08T02:01:43Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.citation Muletz-Wolz, Carly, Fleischer, Robert C., and Lips, Karen R. 2019. "<a href="https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/97860">Fungal disease and temperature alter skin microbiome structure in an experimental salamander system</a>." <em>Molecular ecology</em>. 28 (11):2917&ndash;2931. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15122">https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15122</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 0962-1083
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10088/97860
dc.description.abstract Pathogens compete with host microbiomes for space and resources. Their shared environment impacts pathogen-microbiome-host interactions, which can lead to variation in disease outcome. The skin microbiome of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) can reduce infection by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at moderate infection loads, with high species richness and high abundance of competitors as putative mechanisms. However, it is unclear if the skin microbiome can reduce epizootic Bd loads across temperatures. We conducted a laboratory experiment to quantify skin microbiome and host responses (P. cinereus: n = 87) to Bd at mimicked epizootic loads across temperatures (13, 17, 21 °C). We quantified skin microbiomes using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and identified OTUs taxonomically similar to culturable bacteria known to kill Bd (anti-Bd OTUs). Prior to pathogen exposure, temperature changed the microbiome (OTU richness decreased by 12% and abundance of anti-Bd OTUs increased by 18% per degree increase in temperature), but these changes were not predictive of disease outcome. Post exposure, Bd changed the microbiome (OTU richness decreased by 0.1% and the abundance of anti-Bd OTUs increased by 0.2% per 1% increase in Bd load) and caused high host mortality across temperatures (35/45: 78%). Temperature indirectly impacted microbiome change and mortality through its direct effect on pathogen load. We did not find support for the microbiome impacting Bd load or host survival. Our research unravels complex host, pathogen, microbiome and environmental interactions to demonstrate that during epizootic events the microbiome will be unlikely to reduce pathogen invasion, even for putatively Bd-resistant species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. en
dc.relation.ispartof Molecular ecology en
dc.title Fungal disease and temperature alter skin microbiome structure in an experimental salamander system en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 151344
dc.identifier.doi 10.1111/mec.15122
rft.jtitle Molecular ecology
rft.volume 28
rft.issue 11
rft.spage 2917
rft.epage 2931
dc.description.SIUnit NZP en
dc.description.SIUnit Peer-reviewed en
dc.citation.spage 2917
dc.citation.epage 2931


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