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Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem

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dc.contributor.author Plummer, Thomas W. en
dc.contributor.author Ditchfield, Peter W. en
dc.contributor.author Bishop, Laura C. en
dc.contributor.author Kingston, John D. en
dc.contributor.author Ferraro, Joseph V. en
dc.contributor.author Braun, David R. en
dc.contributor.author Hertel, Fritz en
dc.contributor.author Potts, Richard en
dc.date.accessioned 2009-11-25T14:47:05Z
dc.date.available 2009-11-25T14:47:05Z
dc.date.issued 2009
dc.identifier.citation Plummer, Thomas W., Ditchfield, Peter W., Bishop, Laura C., Kingston, John D., Ferraro, Joseph V., Braun, David R., Hertel, Fritz, and Potts, Richard. 2009. "<a href="https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/8401">Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem</a>." <em>PLoS ONE</em>. 4 (9):e7199. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199">https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10088/8401
dc.description.abstract Major biological and cultural innovations in late Pliocene hominin evolution are frequently linked to the spread or fluctuating presence of C4 grass in African ecosystems. Whereas the deep sea record of global climatic change provides indirect evidence for an increase in C4 vegetation with a shift towards a cooler, drier and more variable global climatic regime beginning approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), evidence for grassland-dominated ecosystems in continental Africa and hominin activities within such ecosystems have been lacking. We report stable isotopic analyses of pedogenic carbonates and ungulate enamel, as well as faunal data from ~2.0 Ma archeological occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya. These document repeated hominin activities within a grassland-dominated ecosystem. These data demonstrate what hitherto had been speculated based on indirect evidence: that grassland-dominated ecosystems did in fact exist during the Plio-Pleistocene, and that early Homo was active in open settings. Comparison with other Oldowan occurrences indicates that by 2.0 Ma hominins, almost certainly of the genus Homo, used a broad spectrum of habitats in East Africa, from open grassland to riparian forest. This strongly contrasts with the habitat usage of Australopithecus, and may signal an important shift in hominin landscape usage. en
dc.format.extent 441715 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en
dc.relation.ispartof PLoS ONE en
dc.title Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 80510
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0007199
rft.jtitle PLoS ONE
rft.volume 4
rft.issue 9
rft.spage e7199
dc.description.SIUnit NH-Anthropology en
dc.description.SIUnit NMNH en
dc.citation.spage e7199


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