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Repeated Evolution of Fused Thoracic Vertebrae in Songbirds

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dc.contributor.author James, Helen F. en
dc.date.accessioned 2009-11-12T18:03:52Z
dc.date.available 2009-11-12T18:03:52Z
dc.date.issued 2009
dc.identifier.citation James, Helen F. 2009. "<a href="https%3A%2F%2Frepository.si.edu%2Fhandle%2F10088%2F8384">Repeated Evolution of Fused Thoracic Vertebrae in Songbirds</a>." <em>The Auk</em>. 126 (4):862&ndash;872. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.08194">https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.08194</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 0004-8038
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10088/8384
dc.description.abstract The fusion of two or more thoracic vertebrae, independent of the synsacrum, is more widespread in the Passeriformes than has previously been reported. The bone thus formed is known as a &quot;notarium.&quot; I surveyed oscine passerine skeletons and found a notarium with fully fused vertebrae in Chabert&#39;s Vanga (Leptopterus chabert), certain woodswallows (Artamidae) and shrikes (Laniidae), the Willie Wagtail (Rhipiduridae, Rhipidura leucophrys), the Phainopepla (Bombycillidae, Phainopepla nitens), the penduline tits (Remizidae) including the Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps), various larks (Alaudidae), the Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), the sickle-billed thrashers (Toxostoma spp.), and the crossbills (Loxia spp.). Mapping of character evolution on a supertree suggests that a fully fused notarium has evolved independently at least 12 times in the oscine passerines and that notaria with less extensive fusion of the vertebrae (only the spinous processes fused, for example) are even more widespread phylogenetically. Phenotypic expression of a notarium is fixed in some species and higher taxonomic groups but varies within the species in others. Ontogenetically, the fully fused notarium forms when the bird is immature. The evolutionary development of notaria probably depends on mutations that alter expression patterns of transcription genes (Pax and Hox genes are likely candidates) that control embryological differentiation of the vertebrae. Among the systematic implications of this study are additional support for placement of the Verdin in the Remizidae and for the monophyly of a group of western thrashers (Toxostoma spp.) with strongly decurved bills. Received 2 October 2008, accepted 3 May 2009. en
dc.format.extent 3243735 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.relation.ispartof The Auk en
dc.title Repeated Evolution of Fused Thoracic Vertebrae in Songbirds en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 80533
dc.identifier.doi 10.1525/auk.2009.08194
rft.jtitle The Auk
rft.volume 126
rft.issue 4
rft.spage 862
rft.epage 872
dc.description.SIUnit convergent evolution en
dc.description.SIUnit NMNH en
dc.description.SIUnit NH-Vertebrate Zoology en
dc.citation.spage 862
dc.citation.epage 872


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