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Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

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dc.contributor.author Funk, W. Chris en
dc.contributor.author Lovich, Robert E. en
dc.contributor.author Hohenlohe, Paul A. en
dc.contributor.author Hofman, Courtney A. en
dc.contributor.author Morrison, Scott A. en
dc.contributor.author Sillett, T. Scott en
dc.contributor.author Ghalambor, Cameron K. en
dc.contributor.author Maldonado, Jesús E. en
dc.contributor.author Rick, Torben C. en
dc.contributor.author Day, Mitch D. en
dc.contributor.author Polato, Nicholas R. en
dc.contributor.author Fitzpatrick, Sarah W. en
dc.contributor.author Coonan, Timothy J. en
dc.contributor.author Crooks, Kevin R. en
dc.contributor.author Dillon, Adam en
dc.contributor.author Garcelon, David K. en
dc.contributor.author King, Julie L. en
dc.contributor.author Boser, Christina L. en
dc.contributor.author Gould, Nicholas en
dc.contributor.author Andelt, William F. en
dc.date.accessioned 2016-04-27T18:35:03Z
dc.date.available 2016-04-27T18:35:03Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Funk, W. Chris, Lovich, Robert E., Hohenlohe, Paul A., Hofman, Courtney A., Morrison, Scott A., Sillett, T. Scott, Ghalambor, Cameron K., Maldonado, Jesús E., Rick, Torben C., Day, Mitch D., Polato, Nicholas R., Fitzpatrick, Sarah W., Coonan, Timothy J., Crooks, Kevin R., Dillon, Adam, Garcelon, David K., King, Julie L., Boser, Christina L., Gould, Nicholas, and Andelt, William F. 2016. "<a href="https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/28584">Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)</a>." <em>Molecular ecology</em>. 25 (10):2176&ndash;2194. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.13605">https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.13605</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 0962-1083
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10088/28584
dc.description.abstract The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of 6 subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland gray foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness, and reduced adaptive potential. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. en
dc.relation.ispartof Molecular ecology en
dc.title Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis) en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 139398
dc.identifier.doi 10.1111/mec.13605
rft.jtitle Molecular ecology
rft.volume 25
rft.issue 10
rft.spage 2176
rft.epage 2194
dc.description.SIUnit NH-Vertebrate Zoology en
dc.description.SIUnit NMNH en
dc.description.SIUnit NH-Anthropology en
dc.description.SIUnit NZP en
dc.citation.spage 2176
dc.citation.epage 2194


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