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Phylogeny and Systematics of Demospongiae in Light of New Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA (18S) Sequences

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dc.contributor.author Redmond, Niamh E. en
dc.contributor.author Morrow, Christine C. en
dc.contributor.author Thacker, Robert W. en
dc.contributor.author Diaz, Maria C. en
dc.contributor.author Boury-Esnault, N. en
dc.contributor.author Cárdenas, P. en
dc.contributor.author Hajdu, E. en
dc.contributor.author Lôbo-Hajdu, G. en
dc.contributor.author Picton, B. E. en
dc.contributor.author Pomponi, S. A. en
dc.contributor.author Kayal, E. en
dc.contributor.author Collins, Allen Gilbert en
dc.date.accessioned 2013-10-31T13:36:08Z
dc.date.available 2013-10-31T13:36:08Z
dc.date.issued 2013
dc.identifier.citation Redmond, Niamh E., Morrow, Christine C., Thacker, Robert W., Diaz, Maria C., Boury-Esnault, N., Cárdenas, P., Hajdu, E., Lôbo-Hajdu, G., Picton, B. E., Pomponi, S. A., Kayal, E., and Collins, Allen Gilbert. 2013. "<a href="https%3A%2F%2Frepository.si.edu%2Fhandle%2F10088%2F21601">Phylogeny and Systematics of Demospongiae in Light of New Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA (18S) Sequences</a>." <em>Integrative & Comparative Biology</em>. 53 (3):388&ndash;415. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/ict078">https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/ict078</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 1540-7063
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10088/21601
dc.description.abstract The most diverse and species-rich class of the phylum Porifera is Demospongiae. In recent years, the systematics of this clade, which contains more than 7000 species, has developed rapidly in light of new studies combining molecular and morphological observations. We add more than 500 new, nearly complete 18S sequences (an increase of more than 200%) in an attempt to further enhance understanding of the phylogeny of Demospongiae. Our study specifically targets representation of type species and genera that have never been sampled for any molecular data in an effort to accelerate progress in classifying this diverse lineage. Our analyses recover four highly supported subclasses of Demospongiae: Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha. Within Keratosa, neither Dendroceratida, nor its two families, Darwinellidae and Dictyodendrillidae, are monophyletic and Dictyoceratida is divided into two lineages, one predominantly composed of Dysideidae and the second containing the remaining families (Irciniidae, Spongiidae, Thorectidae, and Verticillitidae). Within Myxospongiae, we find Chondrosida to be paraphyletic with respect to the Verongida. We amend the latter to include species of the genus Chondrosia and erect a new order Chondrillida to contain remaining taxa from Chondrosida, which we now discard. Even with increased taxon sampling of Haploscleromorpha, our analyses are consistent with previous studies; however, Haliclona species are interspersed in even more clades. Haploscleromorpha contains five highly supported clades, each more diverse than previously recognized, and current families are mostly polyphyletic. In addition, we reassign Janulum spinispiculum to Haploscleromorpha and resurrect Reniera filholi as Janulum filholi comb. nov. Within the large clade Heteroscleromorpha, we confirmed 12 recently identified clades based on alternative data, as well as a sister-group relationship between the freshwater Spongillida and the family Vetulinidae. We transfer Stylissa flabelliformis to the genus Scopalina within the family Scopalinidae, which is of uncertain position. Our analyses uncover a large, strongly supported clade containing all heteroscleromorphs other than Spongillida, Vetulinidae, and Scopalinidae. Within this clade, there is a major division separating Axinellidae, Biemnida, Tetractinellida, Bubaridae, Stelligeridae, Raspailiidae, and some species of Petromica, Topsentia, and Axinyssa from Agelasida, Polymastiidae, Placospongiidae, Clionaidae, Spirastrellidae, Tethyidae, Poecilosclerida, Halichondriidae, Suberitidae, and Trachycladus. Among numerous results: (1) Spirophorina and its family Tetillidae are paraphyletic with respect to a strongly supported Astrophorina within Tetractinellida; (2) Agelasida is the earliest diverging lineage within the second clade listed above; and (3) Merlia and Desmacella appear to be the earliest diverging lineages of Poecilosclerida. en
dc.relation.ispartof Integrative & Comparative Biology en
dc.title Phylogeny and Systematics of Demospongiae in Light of New Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA (18S) Sequences en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 116381
dc.identifier.doi 10.1093/icb/ict078
rft.jtitle Integrative & Comparative Biology
rft.volume 53
rft.issue 3
rft.spage 388
rft.epage 415
dc.description.SIUnit NH-Invertebrate Zoology en
dc.description.SIUnit NMNH en
dc.description.SIUnit Peer-reviewed en
dc.citation.spage 388
dc.citation.epage 415


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