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A DNA barcode library for the butterflies of North America

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dc.contributor.author D'Ercole, Jacopo en
dc.contributor.author Dinca, Vlad en
dc.contributor.author Opler, Paul A. en
dc.contributor.author Kondla, Norbert en
dc.contributor.author Schmidt, Christian en
dc.contributor.author Phillips, Jarrett D. en
dc.contributor.author Robbins, Robert en
dc.contributor.author Burns, John M. en
dc.contributor.author Miller, Scott E. en
dc.contributor.author Grishin, Nick en
dc.contributor.author Zakharov, Evgeny V. en
dc.contributor.author DeWaard, Jeremy R. en
dc.contributor.author Ratnasingham, Sujeevan en
dc.contributor.author Hebert, Paul D. N. en
dc.date.accessioned 2021-04-22T02:03:50Z
dc.date.available 2021-04-22T02:03:50Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.citation D'Ercole, Jacopo, Dincă, Vlad, Opler, Paul A., Kondla, Norbert, Schmidt, Christian, Phillips, Jarrett D., Robbins, Robert, Burns, John M., Miller, Scott E., Grishin, Nick, Zakharov, Evgeny V., DeWaard, Jeremy R., Ratnasingham, Sujeevan, and Hebert, Paul D. N. 2021. "<a href="https://peerj.com/articles/11157">A DNA barcode library for the butterflies of North America</a>." <em>PeerJ</em>. 9:<a href="https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11157">https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11157</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 2167-8359
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10088/110020
dc.description.abstract Although the butterflies of North America have received considerable taxonomic attention, overlooked species and instances of hybridization continue to be revealed. The present study assembles a DNA barcode reference library for this fauna to identify groups whose patterns of sequence variation suggest the need for further taxonomic study. Based on 14,626 records from 814 species, DNA barcodes were obtained for 96% of the fauna. The maximum intraspecific distance averaged 1/4 the minimum distance to the nearest neighbor, producing a barcode gap in 76% of the species. Most species (80%) were monophyletic, the others were para- or polyphyletic. Although 15% of currently recognized species shared barcodes, the incidence of such taxa was far higher in regions exposed to Pleistocene glaciations than in those that were ice-free. Nearly 10% of species displayed high intraspecific variation (&gt;2.5%), suggesting the need for further investigation to assess potential cryptic diversity. Aside from aiding the identification of all life stages of North American butterflies, the reference library has provided new perspectives on the incidence of both cryptic and potentially over-split species, setting the stage for future studies that can further explore the evolutionary dynamics of this group. en
dc.relation.ispartof PeerJ en
dc.title A DNA barcode library for the butterflies of North America en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 159115
dc.identifier.doi 10.7717/peerj.11157
rft.jtitle PeerJ
rft.volume 9
dc.description.SIUnit NMNH en
dc.description.SIUnit NH-Entomology en
dc.relation.url https://peerj.com/articles/11157


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