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Increased stress in Asiatic black bears relates to food limitation, crop raiding, and foraging beyond nature reserve boundaries in China

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dc.contributor.author Malcolm, Karl D. en
dc.contributor.author Mcshea, William J. en
dc.contributor.author Garshelis, David L. en
dc.contributor.author Luo, Shu-Jin en
dc.contributor.author Van Deelen, Timothy R. en
dc.contributor.author Liu, Fang en
dc.contributor.author Li, Sheng en
dc.contributor.author Miao, Lin en
dc.contributor.author Wang, Dajun en
dc.contributor.author Brown, Janine L. en
dc.date.accessioned 2015-04-20T15:15:40Z
dc.date.available 2015-04-20T15:15:40Z
dc.date.issued 2014
dc.identifier.citation Malcolm, Karl D., Mcshea, William J., Garshelis, David L., Luo, Shu-Jin, Van Deelen, Timothy R., Liu, Fang, Li, Sheng, Miao, Lin, Wang, Dajun, and Brown, Janine L. 2014. "Increased stress in Asiatic black bears relates to food limitation, crop raiding, and foraging beyond nature reserve boundaries in China." <em>Global Ecology and Conservation</em>. 2:267&ndash;276. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2014.09.010">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2014.09.010</a> en
dc.identifier.issn 2351-9894
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10088/25440
dc.description.abstract Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are declining throughout much of their range. In China they are partially protected by a nature reserve system and rely heavily on hard mast as a food source prior to winter denning. Bears may compensate for mast shortages by raiding agricultural crops and killing livestock, mainly outside reserves where they are exposed to increased threats of poaching. We hypothesized that stress would vary with availability of high-quality refugia and fluctuations in mast abundance. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging bears in and around nature reserves in southwestern China, recorded habitat characteristics at each fecal sample location, and quantified abundance of hard mast. We used feces for genetic and endocrine analysis and identified 106 individuals. Feces collected outside reserves, or in agricultural fields within reserves, contained elevated concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites compared to samples collected in intact, mast-producing forests within reserves. Relationships with habitat variables indicated that the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of the Asiatic black bear is responsive to human activity, abundance of hard mast, extent of forest cover, and quality of diet. Our findings demonstrate biological reactions of a large mammal to variable forest quality, human threats, and foraging relative to boundaries of protected areas. en
dc.relation.ispartof Global Ecology and Conservation en
dc.title Increased stress in Asiatic black bears relates to food limitation, crop raiding, and foraging beyond nature reserve boundaries in China en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.srbnumber 130170
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.gecco.2014.09.010
rft.jtitle Global Ecology and Conservation
rft.volume 2
rft.spage 267
rft.epage 276
dc.description.SIUnit NZP en
dc.description.SIUnit Peer-reviewed en
dc.citation.spage 267
dc.citation.epage 276


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